A report on the alternatives to the clean water dilemma

The framework is comprised of three key principles: The state duty to protect against human rights abuses by third parties, including business; Respect: The corporate responsibility to respect human rights; and Remedy:

A report on the alternatives to the clean water dilemma

A new federal report on PFAS health effects suggests that drinking water guidelines developed by EPA are not protective enough and should be lower. Scientists, environmental organizations, and community groups are urging the agency to take strong steps to address the problem.

How the agency will respond is unclear at this point. What we do know, however, is that regardless of EPA action, the problem will not go away anytime soon unless we reduce our reliance on these chemicals and invest in safer alternatives.

A wake-up call PFASs are ubiquitous. They can also end up in drinking water through waste released from chemical manufacturing sites as well as military bases and airports where PFAS-containing firefighting foams have been used. Weighing the evidence Weighing in at pages, the report is a comprehensive review of dozens of published studies on the toxicity of PFASs in humans and laboratory animals.

While there are at least 4, PFASs on the global market, the report looked at just 14 types—ones the CDC monitors in the general population. An MRL is essentially a measure of how much of a chemical a person can be exposed to each day without it causing health effects.

MRLs encompass exposures from all sources, including drinking water, food, and consumer products. To calculate an MRL, scientists identify the lowest levels of exposure shown to cause harmful effects in humans or laboratory animals.

They further reduce these levels by building in various safety factors to ensure that MRLs are protective for even the most vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women and children.

Although MRLs and RfDs are more or less the same thing, in this case, there were some differences in the way the two agencies generated their numbers. However, in calculating its MRL, ATSDR lowered its value by a factor of 10 to account for additional studies showing effects on the immune system at low levels of exposure.

What does this mean for our drinking water? Dozens of public water supplies across the U. For instance, on Cape Cod, where I have been studying unregulated drinking water contaminants including PFASs sincethe Hyannis Water System issued a temporary do-not-drink advisory to its customers.

Following a federal PFAS summit in May, EPA identified four areas for future action, including developing enforceable drinking water standards and groundwater cleanup recommendations to speed up remediation at contaminated sites.

These are good first steps. In addition, studies in laboratory animals have found that low levels of PFOA exposure can impair mammary gland development. This is concerning because research shows that altered mammary gland development may increase breast cancer susceptibility later in life.

Residents of affected communities across the U. Her current research focuses on PFASs in drinking water and consumer products, including fast food packaging, and on septic systems as sources of unregulated drinking water contaminants.

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WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: clean drinking water, clean water dilemma, alternatives to clean water, wastewater garden. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University clean drinking water, clean water dilemma. Dec 04,  · Utilities Worry Water's Becoming Unaffordable Water bills have increased faster than any other and show no signs of slowing down, hitting low-income Americans the hardest.

A new federal report on PFAS health effects suggests that drinking water guidelines developed by EPA are not protective enough and should be lower.

A report on the alternatives to the clean water dilemma

Scientists, environmental organizations, and community groups are urging the agency to take strong steps to address the problem. Policy Implications of a Technical Problem The overriding question that this report has ad-dressed—whether there are technological limits to attaining health-based ground water cleanup goals—is a classic example of a technical issue with significant policy ramifications.

A Report on the Alternatives to the Clean Water Dilemma. words. 2 pages. An Argument for the Implementation of the Renewable Sources of Fuels and Fibers for a Better Environment of America. 2, words.

America's Drinking Water Dilemma -- Environmental Protection

4 pages. The Rising Issue of Global Warming and Its Impacts on Earth. 1, words. 2 . Alternatives to the Clean Water Dilemma Because of our increasing populations around the world, more and more of our clean drinking water is being used and contaminated.

The world needs to take action immediately. Implementing one plan will not save our drinking water, but instead several d.

Alternatives to the clean water dilemma