Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Columbian Exchange Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact The European colonization of the Americas fundamentally changed the lives and cultures of the native peoples of the continents. The majority of these losses are attributed to the introduction of Afro-Eurasian diseases into the Americas. Epidemics ravaged the Americas with diseases such as smallpoxmeaslesand cholerawhich the early colonists and African slaves brought from Europe.
Whereas Europeans eventually came to look upon slaves of African descent as being racially inferior, Native Americans took slaves from other Native American groups, and therefore did not have the same racial ideology for their slavery.
Native slaves could be looked down upon as ethnically inferior, however. Captives could be enslaved for life, killed, or adopted. In some cases, captives were only adopted after a period of slavery. For example, the Iroquoian peoples not just the Iroquois tribes often adopted captives, but for religious reasons there was a process, procedures, and many seasons when such adoptions were delayed until the proper spiritual times.
In many cases, new tribes adopted captives to replace warriors killed during a raid. Some Native Americans would cut off one foot of captives to keep them from running away. Others allowed enslaved male captives to marry the widows of slain husbands.
The children did not have slave status. More typically, tribes took women and children captives for adoption, as they tended to adapt more easily into new ways.
Several tribes held captives as hostages for payment.
Slaves would often be killed in potlatchesto signify the owners' contempt for property. European enslavement of Native Americans[ edit ] When Europeans arrived as colonists in North America, Native Americans changed their practice of slavery dramatically.
Native Americans began selling war captives to Europeans rather than integrating them into their own societies as they had done before. As the demand for labor in the West Indies grew with the cultivation of sugar caneEuropeans enslaved Native Americans for the Thirteen Coloniesand some were exported to the "sugar islands".
The British settlers, especially those in the southern colonies, purchased or captured Native Americans to use as forced labor in cultivating tobacco, rice, and indigo.
Accurate records of the numbers enslaved do not exist. Scholars estimate tens of thousands of Native Americans may have been enslaved by the Europeans, being sold by Native Americans themselves.
Slaves became a caste of people who were foreign to the English Native Americans, Africans and their descendants and non-Christians. The Virginia General Assembly defined some terms of slavery in All servants imported and brought into the Country All Negro, mulatto and Indian slaves within this dominion If any slave resists his master It gave rise to a series of devastating wars among the tribes, including the Yamasee War.
The Indian Wars of the early 18th century, combined with the increasing importation of African slaves, effectively ended the Native American slave trade by Colonists found that Native American slaves could easily escape, as they knew the country.
The wars cost the lives of numerous colonial slave traders and disrupted their early societies. The remaining Native American groups banded together to face the Europeans from a position of strength.
Many surviving Native American peoples of the southeast strengthened their loose coalitions of language groups and joined confederacies such as the Choctawthe Creekand the Catawba for protection.
Native American women were at risk for rape whether they were enslaved or not; during the early colonial years, settlers were disproportionately male. They turned to Native women for sexual relationships.
The exact number of Native Americans who were enslaved is unknown because vital statistics and census reports were at best infrequent.
In the Spanish colonies, the church assigned Spanish surnames to Native Americans and recorded them as servants rather than slaves. Native American slaves suffered from European diseases and inhumane treatment, and many died while in captivity.
Consequently, the Natives who were captured and sold into slavery were often sent to the West Indies, or far away from their home.
Before the s indentured servitude was dominant form of bondage in the colonies, but by only Caucasians could lawfully receive contracts as indentured servants. While both Native Americans and Africans were considered savages, Native Americans were romanticized as noble people that could be elevated into Christian civilization.I.
Introduction. Native Americans long dominated the vastness of the American West. Linked culturally and geographically by trade, travel, and warfare, various indigenous groups controlled most of the continent west of the Mississippi River deep into the nineteenth century.
Although they had already begun topeace negotiationswith the U.S. government, more than Native Americans were killed and mutilated, more than 2/3 of which were women and children.
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans roughly within the present-day United States. Tribal territories and the slave trade ranged over present-day borders. Some Native American tribes held war captives as slaves prior to and during European colonization, some Native Americans were captured and sold by.
The history of Native Americans in the United States began in ancient times tens of thousands of years ago with the settlement of the Americas by the Paleo-Indians.
Anthropologists and archeologists have identified and studied a wide variety of cultures that existed during this era. Throughout the 19th century and early 20th century, the United States government engaged in a policy of involuntary cultural assimilation of Native Americans, which included taking several generations of Native American children from their parents to be enrolled in Native American boarding schools.
Introd uction. Ever since humanity's ancestors left their native habitat in the tropical rainforests, they had to exploit new energy sources. Whether it was tools to scavenge predator kills, weapons that made humans into super-predators, fur from human prey worn as clothing, felling trees and using deforested land to grow crops and pasture animals, the game was always about securing or.