Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground. This was also the period in which the United Kingdom and France did not supply significant aid to Poland, despite their pledged alliance. While most of the German Army was fighting against Poland, a much smaller German force manned the Siegfried Linetheir fortified defensive line along the French border.
Utilitarian liberationists, on the other hand, do not believe that animals possess moral rights, but argue, on utilitarian grounds — utilitarianism in its simplest form advocating that we base moral decisions on the greatest happiness of the greatest number — that, because animals have the ability to suffer, their suffering must be taken into account in any moral philosophy.
To exclude animals from that consideration, they argue, is a form of discrimination that they call speciesism ; see, for example, the work of Peter Singer.
Factional division has also been characterized as that between the reformist or mainstream faction and the radical abolitionist and direct action factions. The mainstream faction is largely professionalized and focuses on soliciting donations and gaining media representation.
This focus on resource mobilization, sought by means of frame alignment Liberation through education essay dominant cultural frames, leads to compromise with targets.
Actors in the reformist movement diagnose the problem as one of nonhuman animal mistreatment, offer a prognosis including welfare reform, and employ action frames that include moral shocks. It has been noted that the power of the animal rights movement in the United States is centralized in professionalized nonprofit organizations that prefer moderated goals of welfare reform and tend to be isomorphic.
Gary Francione, a leader in abolitionism, formed his approach in response to the traditional movement's focus on policy reform.
Members of the abolitionist faction view policy reform as counterproductive and rely on nonviolent education and moral suasion in their repertoire of contention. They see the promotion of veganism as a low-opportunity cost means of creating an antispeciesist culture and posing an economic threat to the animal agriculture industrial complex.
With these, they offer a prognosis to the problem of animal use that focuses on changing society through force and fear. Animal rights actors often reject this faction, pointing to violence as a counterproductive tactic that invites repression e.
Ryderand Peter Singer The Animal Rights Movement traces back to the animal protection movement in Victorian England, which was initiated by aristocratic moral crusaders in response to the poor treatment of urban workhorses and stray dogs.
Other early influences include: Upton Sinclair's novel The Junglewhich drew attention to obscured slaughterhouse operations; Henry Salt's treatises on nonhuman animal rights; which drew from human abolitionist arguments for recognizing personhood of people considered to be property; and the Alcott House of New England, a community serving as a stop on the Underground Railroad and requiring its residents to eat a vegan diet.
The Godlovitches met John Harris and David Wood, also philosophy graduates, who were soon persuaded of the arguments in favour of animal rights and themselves became vegetarian.
The group began to actively raise the issue with pre-eminent Oxford moral philosophers, including Professor Richard Hare, both personally and in lectures. Their approach was based not on sentimentality "kindness to dumb animals'but on the moral rights of animals.
They soon developed and borrowed a range of powerful arguments in support of their views, so that Oxford clinical psychologist Richard Ryderwho was shortly to become part of the group, writes that "rarely has a cause been so rationally argued and so intellectually well armed.
We employ their work; we eat and wear them. We exploit them to serve our superstitions: At about the same time, Ryder wrote three letters to the Daily Telegraph in response to Brophy's arguments.WARNING: This post goes against the social conditioning on education and is particularly lengthy: read if you dare.
As my high school career is slowly coming to an end (I graduate June 11th) I have found myself particularly reflective on the value I have received from high-school. Risks of Faith: The Emergence of a Black Theology of Liberation, [James Cone] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
When John Steinbeck's short story "The Chrysanthemums" first appeared in the October edition of Harper's Magazine (Osborne ), Franklin D. Roosevelt had just been reelected president. The country was recovering from the Great Depression, unions were developing, and child labor in manufacturing was terminated (Jones ). The document available for viewing above is from an early draft of the Letter, while the audio is from King’s reading of the Letter later. ‘Black Panther’ Is Not the Movie We Deserve from Boston Review. Black Panther, a movie unique for its black star power, depends on a .
Risks of Faith offers for the first time the best of noted theologian James H. Cone's essays, including several new pieces. Representing the breadth of his life's work. Paulo Freire, dialogue, praxis and education.
Perhaps the most influential thinker about education in the late twentieth century, Paulo Freire has been particularly popular with informal educators with his emphasis on dialogue and his concern for the oppressed.
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
Paulo Freire, dialogue, praxis and education. Perhaps the most influential thinker about education in the late twentieth century, Paulo Freire has been particularly popular with informal educators with his emphasis on dialogue and his concern for the oppressed. The case for single-sex schools.
Leonard Sax of the National Association for Single Sex Public Education is almost dismissive of the private sector schools and ticks off a half dozen public schools whose single-gender students are randomly selected.