An outline of the above mentioned two theories will be given and how it informs knowledge of human development.
Stages of attachment identified by Schaffer, and multiple attachments. The role of the father. Animal studies of attachment: The concepts of a critical period and an internal working model. Cultural variations in attachment, including van Ijzendoorn.
The influence of early attachment on childhood and adult relationships, including the role of an internal working model. Definition Attachment can be defined as an emotional bond between two people in which each seeks closeness and feels more secure when in the presence of the attachment figure.
Caregiver-Infant Interactions in Humans Interactions between very young babies and their parents are baby led, with the adult responding to the behavior of the baby.
Reciprocity AO1 The word reciprocal means two-way, or something that is mutual. Infant and caregiver are both active contributors in the interaction and are responding to each other.
Reciprocity is a form of interaction between infant and caregiver involving mutual responsiveness, with both parties being able to produce response from each other.
Smiling is an example of reciprocity — when a smile occurs in the infant it triggers a smile in the caregiver, and vice versa.
It becomes the basis for development of basic trust or mistrust, and shapes how the child will relate to the world, learn, and form relationships throughout life. Interactional Synchrony AO1 Interactional synchrony is form of rhythmic interaction between infant and caregiver involving mutual focus, reciprocity and mirroring of emotion or behavior.
Infants coordinate their actions with caregivers in a kind of conversation. From birth babies move in a rhythm when interacting with an adult almost as if they were taking turns.
Infant and caregiver are able to anticipate how each other will behave and can elicit a particular response from the other. For example, a caregiver who laughs in response to their infants giggling sound and tickles them, is experiencing synchronised interaction.
AO3 Heimann showed that infants who demonstrate a lot of imitation from birth onwards have been found to have a better quality of relationship at 3 months. Many studies involving observation of interactions between mothers and infants have shown the same patterns of interaction.
However, what is being observed is merely hand movements or changes in expression. Is, for example, the infants imitation of adult signals conscious and deliberate? This means that we cannot really know for certain that behaviors seen in mother-infant interaction have a special meaning.
Observations of mother-infant interactions are generally well-controlled procedures, with both mother and infant being filmed, often from multiple angles.
This ensures that very fine details of behavior can be recorded and later analysed. This is a strength of this line of research because it means the research has good validity. Stages of Attachment AO1 Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson studied 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of life this is known as a longitudinal study.
The children were all studied in their own home and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment. The babies were visited monthly for approximately one year, their interactions with their carers were observed, and carers were interviewed.The Attachment And Adoption Psychology Essay Attachment can be defined as the strong preference of a person to be in close proximity to another specific person and to feel comfortable when 9 Pages (3, Words) - Last Modified: 23rd March, The importance of early infant attachment cannot be overstated.
It is at the heart of healthy child development and lays the foundation for relating intimately with others, including spouses and children. - Attachment Theory: One of the most studied topics in today’s psychology is the attachment theory whose common references are from attachment models by Bowlby and Ainsworth.
Since its introduction, the concept has developed to become one of the most significant theoretical schemes for understanding the socio-emotional development of children at an early stage.
Attachment theory is focused on the relationships and bonds between people, particularly long-term relationships, including those between a parent and child and between romantic partners.
The quality of an attachment indicates the character of a parent-child relationship and is a good predictor of a child's future behavior. It also plays a key role in a mother's nurturing response, which ultimately is responsible for the child's survival and well-being. Jan 08, · Attachment Theory Final PDF Topic 2: Attachment theory and research Children need a relationship with a caregiver who is sensitive and responsive, who comforts the child when distressed and enables them to feel safe enough to relax, play and learn.