Islam Islam, another monotheistic religion, is the second most popular religion in the world with over a billion followers. A Muslim is a follower of Islam. The Arabic word 'Islam' means submission. This religion began about years after Christianity.
Esposito The Caliphate In Islamic history, upon the death of Muhammad, his followers were faced with the decision of who should take his place as the leader of Islam. This leadership position was called the kalifa, which means "deputy" or "successor" in Arabic.
The decision over who should be the first caliph the anglicized form of kalifa resulted in a division that has endured to this day.
One group of followers held that Muhammad himself had chosen 'Ali, his cousin and son-in-law, as his successor. Others insisted that Abu Bakr, Muhammad's good friend and father-in-law, be given the caliphate.
In the end, Abu Bakr would become the first of four caliphs, each of whom contributed significantly to the development and spread of Islam. Abu Bakr Abu Bakr served as caliph from until his death in His first major accomplishment was to deal with the problem of the Bedouins nomadic Arabs.
Although some had converted under Muhammad, after his death they rejected Islam and refused to obey Abu Bakr. Inthe caliph defeated the Bedouin revolt, known as the Ridda, and thereby secured the entire Arabian peninsula for Islam. The experience served to convince Abu Bakr that Islam needed to expand beyond Arabia in order to be secure.
He set his sights on the two neighboring empires he viewed as threats to Islam: He declared a jihad against the Byzantine Christians, but died before he was able to carry it out. Umar The second caliph was Umar, another father-in-law of Muhammad, who had been named by Bakr as his successor.
His caliphate lasted from to One of his first contributions was to add "Commander of the Faithful" to his title, which was used by all subsequent caliphs. His primary contribution, though, was a series of military victories resulting in the rapid expansion of Islam.
Realizing the importance of loyalty in his new subjects, Umar instituted a policy of religious tolerance in his new lands. This was received gratefully by Jews and Christians, who had been persecuted under the Byzantines.
He instituted two taxes, the kharaj for landowners with productive fields and the jizya, which non-Muslims paid in return for the privilege of practicing their religion. At the same time, Muslim forces were moving against the Sassanid Empire in the east.
Once he had secured his place in Syria, Umar succeeded in conquering the Sassanid capital, Ctesiphon, in Turning west yet again, with a Muslim Syria assisting, Umar's forces set out for Egypt. Babylon fell inand Alexandria in Christians have not ruled in Egypt since.
Umar continued the policy of tolerance in the newly-conquered lands, and Muslims did not force conversion to Islam. They depended too much on the revenue from the jizya tax and the nonresistance of the outnumbering non-Muslims.
Muslims would find that it was not as easy to placate Persia as other conquered lands. By the time Islam arrived, the Persians had become a fiercely nationalistic people.
They had their own national religion, Zoroastrianism, and considered the invading Arab Muslims inferior. Uthman Uthman, a member of the influential Umayyad family, was chosen as Umar's successor, leaving Ali's supporters once again disappointed and angry.
Uthman served as the third caliph from to Inhe defeated a Byzantine attempt to recover Alexandria, and in he began expanding the Muslim Empire west of Egypt. He conquered Cyprus in and his forces reached the easternmost boundary of Persia in Some of Uthman's other accomplishments, however, were not as popular among Muslims.
He appointed fellow members of the Umayyad family to administrative positions, depleted the treasury with his lavish spending habits and lack of financial planning, and perhaps most controversial of all, he sought to create a single, definitive text of the Quran.
He succeeded in accomplishing his goal, and thereby significantly reduced doctrinal disagreements, but not without criticism from those who suspected Uthman of tampering with the sacred texts. In any case, Uthman's compilation of the Quran must certainly be considered a significant accomplishment for Islam.God had sent many prophets, among them were men like Abraham, who is considered the founder of the faith for Islam, as he is also for Christianity.
The Koran, using sources in the older Christian Scriptures and later traditions, tells many of the stories of Abraham, Joseph, Moses and Aaron, David, Solomon, Jesus, and others. Islam is a monotheistic religious tradition that developed in the Middle East in the 7th century C.E.
Islam, which literally means "surrender" or "submission," was founded on the teachings of the. Islam prohibits violence and promotes peace and justice: As mentioned earlier, the Quran -- the holy words of none other than Allah Almighty -- can best bear the witness for Islam’s inclination towards peace, justice, and harmony amongst human beings while .
African Religion and Its Influence on Christianity and Islam Essay Words Sep 25th, 3 Pages African Religion and its Influence on Christianity and Islam Traditional African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa. The term Islamic art not only describes the art created specifically in the service of the Muslim faith (for example, a mosque and its furnishings) but also characterizes the art and architecture historically produced in the lands ruled by Muslims, produced for Muslim patrons, or created by Muslim. The Arabic Language By Professor Samir Abu-Absi Introduction Arabic is one of the world’s major languages with over million people in various Arab countries who use it as a mother tongue.1 It is also used extensively as the major language in a non-Arab .
History of Islam – Essay Example Islam is the third world religion, along with Buddhism and Christianity that emerged at the beginning of VII century among the . The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of influence of religion .
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