The Church transcends the contingent facts of this world, yet at the same time is deeply connected to historical events, for its very foundation is rooted in the centrality of the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. The Christian view of history is a vision and interpretation of time in terms of eternity and of human events in the light of divine revelation. Christianity is the dynamic element in the history of our Western culture.
Visit Website Did you know? Although Parks has sometimes been depicted as a woman with no history of civil rights activism at the time of her arrest, she and her husband Raymond were, in fact, active in the local chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACPand Parks served as its secretary.
Upon her arrest, Parks called E. Nixon, a prominent black leader, who bailed her out of jail and determined she would be an upstanding and sympathetic plaintiff in a legal challenge of the segregation ordinance. African-American leaders decided to attack the ordinance using other tactics as well.
Black ministers announced the boycott in church on Sunday, December 4, and the Montgomery Advertisera general-interest newspaper, published a front-page article on the planned action.
The group elected Martin Luther King, Jr. Initially, the demands did not include changing the segregation laws; rather, the group demanded courtesy, the hiring of black drivers, and a first-come, first-seated policy, with whites entering and filling seats from the front and African Americans from the rear.
Ultimately, however, a group of five Montgomery women, represented by attorney Fred D. District Court, seeking to have the busing segregation laws totally invalidated. Many black residents chose simply to walk to work or other destinations. Black leaders organized regular mass meetings to keep African-American residents mobilized around the boycott.
Integration at Last On June 5,a Montgomery federal court ruled that any law requiring racially segregated seating on buses violated the 14th Amendment to the U.
That amendment, adopted in following the U.
Civil Warguarantees all citizens—regardless of race—equal rights and equal protection under state and federal laws. The city appealed to the U. It had lasted days. Integration, however, met with significant resistance and even violence.
While the buses themselves were integrated, Montgomery maintained segregated bus stops. Snipers began firing into buses, and one shooter shattered both legs of a pregnant African-American passenger.
On January 30,the Montgomery police arrested seven bombers; all were members of the Ku Klux Klana white supremacist group. The arrests largely brought an end to the busing-related violence.
First, it is widely regarded as the earliest mass protest on behalf of civil rights in the United States, setting the stage for additional large-scale actions outside the court system to bring about fair treatment for African Americans. Second, in his leadership of the MIA, Martin Luther King emerged as a prominent national leader of the civil rights movement while also solidifying his commitment to nonviolent resistance.
The boycott also brought national and international attention to the civil rights struggles occurring in the United States, as more than reporters visited Montgomery during the boycott to profile the effort and its leaders.
Rosa Parks, while shying from the spotlight throughout her life, remained an esteemed figure in the history of American civil rights activism. Inthe U. Congress awarded her its highest honor, the Congressional Gold Medal.In The Beloved Community, theologian and award-winning author Charles Marsh traces the history of the spiritual vision that animated the civil rights movement and shows how it remains a vital source of moral energy timberdesignmag.com Beloved Community lays out an exuberant new vision for progressive Christianity and reclaims the centrality of faith in the quest for social justice and authentic community.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, After Parks' arrest, African Americans gathered and organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott to demand a bus system in which passengers would be treated equally.
Selma Voting Rights Campaign (Jan-Mar) Photos See The Selma Injunction for background and previous events. See also Selma & the March to Montgomery for a discussion of the Selma events by Freedom Movement veterans.. Contents. The peak of the civil rights movement came in the 's starting with the successful bus boycott in Montgomery Alabama.
The civil rights movement was lead by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., who preached nonviolence and love for your enemy. The black revolt of the s and s-North and South-came as a surprise.
But perhaps it should not have. The memory of oppressed people is one thing that cannot be taken away, and for such people, with such memories, revolt is always an inch below the surface. It trained civil rights leader Rosa Parks prior to her historic role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott, as well as providing training for many other movement activists including the members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Septima Clark, Anne Braden, Martin Luther King, Jr., James Bevel, Hollis Watkins, Bernard Lafayette, .